Archive for April, 2009

Several of my Learning Centre students are currently involved in a project-based learning experience about empathy called the Kinship Project. They have volunteered to partner with a class of autistic teens in a school in Pennsylvania. The two groups of students will exchange short personal portraits (slide shows of no more than 60 seconds) to introduce themselves as well as videos to show what their schools are like. Mine will also create a Voicethread portraying 6 strong facial expressions through original photographs and movie trailers for the Pennsylvania students to use as a learning and response tool. Finally the two groups will meet their online partners through Elluminate.

Interestingly, what these 2 groups have in common is that they are both challenged to experience empathy — albeit in different ways. Children “on the Spectrum” are thought to lack empathy because they struggle to make sense of facial expressions, verbal expressions, and body language. For my students empathy is a commodity most often reserved for people they think deserve it. When these students do flick on their empathy switch, they can become so completely involved in the feelings of the other person that their self-worth is measured by the intensity of the bond that develops.

The big questions for my students are: What if you were beamed into an ‘alien’ world where you could not tell what others were feeling and there was no one to share your experiences with? Why is empathy important? How can we use empathy more to guide our interactions with others?

I. What are the key organizational and management challenges of doing a group project in the SS/WR Learning Centre?

a) Group work in an individualized program — In our school students are not really classmates. They work in rooms on completely individualized programs. When my students work on projects, they must also continue to fulfill regular course responsibilities, and I have to divide my time between guiding the ‘project people’ and teaching my regular students.

b) Maintaining the energy — Because project participants are typically scattered in different classrooms, it’s easy for the initial excitement of the project to become diluted.

c) Reality all too often intervenes — Illness, attendance problems, fluctuating levels of personal commitment, and competing priorities (jobs, provincial exams, other outside opportunities) all make the task of keeping the project going more complex. The work can seem to progress in fits and starts. The participants can leave mid-project. Steering the project to a successful conclusion for all can be a challenge.

d) Struggles with the technology — We have very limited bandwidth so often run into trouble when streaming live from the internet.

e) Respecting the work of others — Students think that everything on the net is fair game for ‘grab and remix’ so it’s important to use largely original material and make it easy to cite any other sources.

f) Choice of tools — All software must be permitted by the district and easy for the students to learn so that they can teach each other and so a minimum amount of my time will be required for troubleshooting. We also prefer tools that can be used in other courses at our school or at home on family projects so the tech skills acquired are transferable.

g) Connections to other courses — Project work has generally been done outside the normal courses students take, and it can be a struggle to find ways to give them course credit for this. Not all courses are flexible enough to permit substitution of project work for regular units.

h) Creating more Learning Centre interest in PBL — In the school we can keep the ‘buzz’ going among students, staff, and visitors by connecting the students to the large screen or whiteboard as they work. Unfortunately, not all teachers have equal access to the hardware, so this means asking another busy teacher to unlock and lock up the connecting cables and screen controls once or twice a day.

II. What does all this mean in terms of specific organizational and planning details and choice of tools?

This project has rather sputtered to a stop because the teachers (both in BC and Pennsylvania) are in this Wilkes IM class and we’ve both lost our in-class project focus a little. On the plus side however, this has given me time to get a handle on the critical organization and management steps needed to reinvigorate the project. This will be important so that my students (in BC) finish what they started and so that the students with autism (in Pennsylvania) are not disappointed by their Canadian counterparts.

First I need to light a fire under my students. Several things will accomplish this. My Pennsylvania colleague and I need to set a firm due date so I can hold a planning meeting and create a large planning calendar with my students. I need them to renew their commitment to this project by establishing exactly what course credit each can earn and making clear the work that must be done to qualify for that.Each day a different student needs to be working publicly so that everyone in the school can see what we’re working on this year.

Next I need to make each day’s working time more valuable to the students by reducing the minutes per day that can be spent on the project. Some have spent long hours in needless editing to avoid regular work; others have lost their way and let their project commitments slide and so have accomplished little. My students are used to working from individual tracking sheets. I need to make up a tracking sheet/checklist for the project. A master list with calendar should be posted on the wall. Each student should tick of ‘jobs done’ each day so I can know at a glance what needs to be done next and can help keep the work moving forward.

Finally my students will be more motivated if they have a more personal connection to the Pennsylvania class. We should provide a way for them to make contact with each other through posting personal profiles in the wiki.

Although I have been using Wikispaces and originally thought I’d set up a Ning, given time, I’d now prefer to move the whole project over to as there is unlimited media storage and it provides in one place all the applications we might want to use: of a wiki, a calendar, social network, blogs, and chatrooms.

An IT class in the US has volunteered to do some website customizing for us, so we could ask them to come up with interesting designs and layouts.

Embedding TokBox will enable students to have video chats. The IT students would then be able to communicate directly with both classes about the overall appearance of the site.

I would like to find a tool such as this Forever Journal for the students to record their reflections, but a Google Doc in which I could post responses would be a good alternative.

We have just enough time left this year to bring this project to a successful conclusion. If I make use of the management and organizational strategies above, I know I can ‘get my students stoked’ about the project again and have something interesting to showcase for parents at the Year-End Celebration.

“Myth: Autistic People Lack Empathy.” GRASP: the Global and Regional Asperger Sybndrome Partnership. 17 Apr. 2009 . PDF file written by a person “on the spectrum” — sources of one of the ‘big questions.

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NET-S stands for the National Educational Technology Standards for Students. Grouped under the 5 categories listed below are the objectives set out by ISTE as critical to ensuring students leave school well equipped “to work, live, and contribute to the social and civic fabric of their communities . . ., to learn effectively for a lifetime, and [to] live productively in our emerging global society.”

  1. Creativity and Innovation
  2. Communication and Collaboration
  3. Research and Information Fluency
  4. Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making
  5. Digital Citizenship
  6. Technology Operations and Concepts

This week’s second question as was to explain how the use of Web 2.0 communication, collaboration, and publishing tools can help students meet the these standards. ISTE’s work is based on the philosopy that students will be better prepared to lead successful lives in the world they will claim as adults if we give them opportunities in school to learn how to to ‘get it right’.

There is a difference between understanding and being able to give back, between knowing intellectually and emotionally what to do and being able to put one’s knowledge into action. I sometimes ask students struggling to appreciate the difference between passive and active learning if they think their dad or mum would let them take out a new car for a drive on their own.  “After all,” I say, ” you’ve been a passenger all your life. You know quite a lot about what it is to be a driver. Doesn’t it make sense that your parents should trust you with that new car?” They snort. I continue. “What if  you’ve watched all the training films and discussed the manual with your parents or even a driving instructor? What if you went to a class and took notes?”  They laugh and shake their heads. The students know that in order to really learn to drive, they need plenty of guided practice behind the wheel out on the road. This is what using communication, collaboration, and publishing tools does for them in the classroom.  In the context of a project-based learning experience, these tools promote a holistic approach for guiding students from being passive passengers towards becoming the active drivers of their own  educational experiences while still in a supportive classroom environment where mistakes in judgment become opportunities for growth. Using these kinds of tools as they address issues, solve problems and examine larger questions, students not only learn by doing but ‘by being’. In the words of Cary Grant: “I pretended to be somebody I wanted to be until I finally became that person.”

I. Communication applications are those through which knowledge is shared and conversation is fostered.  When working as a group, students need to learn how to learn from each other. Whether sharing or struggling, whether expressing what you know or what you need,  students have to be able communicate effectively so conversation becomes a tool for learning, not just so much social chit-chat. If this is going to occur with people at a distance, students must also begin to appreciate how much slippage there can be between what you ‘say’ and what is actually ‘heard’. This is further complicated  by cultural differences whether the students are physically sitting side by side or linked up online. Many young people today seem to feel the onus is on the ‘other person’ to understand or respect them first. Using these kinds of platforms is one way to teach students that it is their responsibility to make their own communications clear and respectful first. Otherwise there will be no basis for developing partnership or teamwork.
II. Collaboration platforms involve the construction of knowledge and understanding by groups of people. To become involved in “collaborative authoring”, students have to figure out what they collectively know and can help each other learn and what they need to find out from other sources. They have to develop a plan for further inquiry so the needed information or skills can be obtained and shared. They need to be able to sift the true nuggets out of all the sources they amass and from these glean the knowledge they need to complete their understanding. This is easy for some and difficult for others, but an expectation that everyone will make a valued contribution puts group members into the position of having to work out how to give everyone responsibilities they can handle and how to ensure everyone contributes. It’s hard to hide the fact that one or two people did most of the work given the activity ‘histories’ the teacher can look at in many of these applications.

III. Publishing tools give us a way to present information and ideas to a world that is interested in what we have to say and that will respond.  This experience says to the student that learning is not a process that goes on in the isolation of a classroom. It does not occur only between 8 and 3, 5 days a week, 10 months of the year until you’re old enough to escape or someone says you’ve learned enough to be let go. Connecting with the world through publishing tools turns learning into an interactive process. What the students have to contribute enriches others, and they in turn are enriched by the contributions of others. Through these tools creativity and innovation can be practiced as students put their critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making skills to the test in order to create a presentation that will show what they have learned in a unique way. This is where organization and synthesis become very important and leaders emerge. Students may also confront issues of ethics as they decide whether they’ll remix the work of others because no one will ever find out or whether they’ll ‘plan B’ the project and use Creative Ccommons sources even if they’re not as good.

To discuss and come to a consensus about ow to proceed when such questions arise, the students have to put their communication skills and tools to work again, and so instead of plodding up Bloom’s hierarchical staircase, they are carried up  spiral of learning (as illustrated below). As they move close to the top, students who may have simply paid lip service to the values and ideals memorialized in the standards at first, over time can come to internalize them and leave us knowing that doing their best work and living their best lives was something they got better at in school.

“The Learning Spiral”  ( Diagram in Understanding Curriculum Development in the Workplace: A Resource for Educators stored in the National Adult Literacy Database (Canada’s Literacy and Essential Skills Network).

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Imagine it’s Saturday morning. The week’s course Moodle discussions have concluded; the blogs have been posted; other assignments have been submitted. Where will you find me? I’ll be in an Elluminate room together with 50 to 100 other teachers who have come to listen, learn, and ask questions at a session of Classroom 2.0 Live. This meeting has become my weekly dose of pro-d. The hosts invite people you’d normally have to pay big money to see to share their best practices. Although it’s clear from the ‘chat’ that there are lots of experienced users who’ve come to pick up tips, the programs are really offered as a way to help beginners make a start at using online tools and resources with their students. The sessions are archived together with a Sharetabs record of all the links people contributed through the chat room. It’s amazing how much you can learn in an hour!

My three picks for this week’s blog are tools recently demonstrated in Classroom 2.0 Live:

  • Communications — Diigo with Jennifer Dorman
  • Collaboration — Ning with Steve Hargado
  • Publishing — Voicethread with Colette Cassinelli



Using this social bookmarking tool is kind of like having your own shelf in a vast library.  There you can create your own sub-collection, annotate your entries, add highlighting and sticky notes to record your thoughts on the fly, and share collections with other friend and groups.  When you’re looking at websites you can bookmark them for personal use or to share to one ore more groups. You can also look for members and groups with similar intrests to whe what they’ve slready forund. Installing the Diigo toolbar is recommended for ease of use and the greatest number of features, but it’s also possible to use the drag-and-drop Diigolet bookmarklet tool which requires no download or installation. This is not a commercial service, so there is no age restriction or requirement for parental permission that I could find. Diigo provides step-by-step tutorials, easy-to access information on how to use the features, links to blogs of experts for more help, and an Educator User Forum.

One of the most interesting comments Jennifer Doorman made when illustrating how to use Diigo in her Classroom 2.0 Live session (linked above) was that most people don’t go any farther than 3 pages when doing a Google search. In addition, few students know how to frame their search terms well. As a result, even though my students think of themselves as living in a web-rich universe, few search past Wikipedia because they think it has everything. 

In the old days to make expanding a librarly search more manageable I would collaborate with the school librarian ahead of time to pull books, magazines, videos, and periodical files onto a cart we could wheel out when my classes went to the library. Now instead I can set up Diigo group, bookmark a collection of online resources for any project or topic, and make searching beyond Wikipedia a much more manageable task for the students. I can control the reading levels, the variety of sources, and the relevance to our topic. I can leave questions for further thought on sticky notes. I can ask the students to develop their own Wikipedia-style entries.

The other way I would use Diigo is as a place for students to collect additional resources — either individually or collaboratively. Tags become very important here. They are designed to make for faster searching of Diigo lists. I would start projects by working with the class to develop a set of project tags. Students would suggest and try out classifications that would make searching my master list more efficient. Once we had agreed on the final set, the students could quickly tag my collection and then use the same tags when creating their own project lists. Tags can also make assessing individual and group contributions to collecting research sources much easier for teachers. Having students add personal and group identity tags to all bookmarks makes it easy to pull up their specific contributions. Finally if I want groups to present their sources to the class and talk about how they made their choices, their bookmarks can be turned into an interactive slide show of live pages using the Webslides feature.

Educator accounts are Diigo’s way of ensuring students’ safety and privacy are protected. Once a teacher has been approved for such an account, individual student accounts are created through the Teacher Console. Students in the same class automatically become each others’ friends, and interaction is limited to the classroom group. “Student profiles are not indexed for ‘People Searches’ and not made available to public search engines.” Teachers can also collaborate and combine their students into one big class group. Pre-existing student accounts can be transferred from class to class so students can take all their bookmarks with them, and after graduation, they can apply to have their student accounts converted to regular accounts.

My main concern with Diigo is how to exert some control over the entries that students add to their lists. I would not want students using their accounts to store or share inappropriate bookmarks or use sticky notes to leave personal or distasteful remarks on others’ bookmarks. I would have to contact the user forum before I used this in my classes to see what could be done to prevent that.


Ning is a networking format that brings together familiar online tools in one place with the goal of “building community and content.” Growing a list of friends and creating or joining groups; communicating through forums and discussions, blogging, and email, and chat rooms; uploading files for sharing; adding tabs that link to outside sources — these are all features that make Ning Networks a much a faster way than using a blog or a wiki “for people to find you or for you to develop and audience.” Ning websites are relatively easy to set up and customize and can be designated private or for members only. It is possible accept or refuse members and to moderate all content before it’s posted. Unless one applies for an educator account, Google ads will appear on the network page because Ning is a commercial enterprise. As such it is governed by COPPA, the Child Online Privacy and Protection Act in the US, and can admit only members 13 yr. and over even to its education division.

I would find it cumbersome to maintain a NIng for a regular classroom, although I can see some value in having an online space to post assignments and announcements, to add tabs for fast links to other class webpages, or to provide a forum for students to ask and answer questions and develop learning networks. The most important thing about setting up a Ning is to keep in mind that social networks are all about facilitating conversations, so a class Ning might be a lot of work to accomplish what you can easily do with a Google Calendar and a personal blog.

On the other hand, when involving students in projects with partners in different schools or cities, or trying to find ways to forge connections between students in e-learning situations, setting up a Ning network makes a lot of sense. The profile page is a way of introducing participants to each other. Groups can be formed that cross geographical boundaries. Students can communicate on comment walls, by email, or in a chatroom. Blogs can be used by teachers to post general guidelines and reflections to all students. Projects can be posted online. Forums and discussions encourage asynchronous dialogue. It’s easy for teachers to assess the level of participation of individuals by looking at their profiles which can be set to show all student activity. The Classroom 2.0 Wiki is the best place to look for ideas about how to use social networks in classes. There is not much help on the Ning website. If you want to figure out the best design and features to include,  Jane Hart’s Guide to Social Learning in her C4LPT website gives some straight forward starting suggestions, or you can look at the Ning Developer Network.

Before going to the trouble of setting up a Ning network for your class, it makes sense to see whether it can be accessed from your school. Apparently Ning is widely blocked throughout the US. Steve Hargadon suggests that many network administrators will unblock specific teachers’ Nings on request because it is possible to keep them completely private. It is also possible to purchase a domain name, and Steve will help you set that up if you email him. Also it can be worthwhile to set up a generic classroom g-mail account for yourself if using a Ning network. You can create dummy accounts for the students by taking part of your g-mail address and adding + sign so it forwards their messages to your gmail account. That way you can filter their emails.


Voicethread (VT) is a very popular interactive multimedia publishing platform that offers teachers and students the ability to control the content of their presentations and get responses from all over the world. You can upload text files, PowerPoints, Images, and Videos. You can comment by adding text or audio or via webcam. There is a ‘Doodling’ tool for drawing viewers’ attention to parts of the presentation while you comment verbally. Final products can be embedded in other websites, published for everyone to view, kept for private viewing, or downloaded in a format that can be stored and played offline if the VT is instructional only. Three K-12 educator options offer different levels of service and amojunts of storge storage. Using the ProEducator account (one time $10 fee), the teacher can create unlimited student accounts which offer tight content monitoring controls. Students never have to use their own email addresses.

VT offers several tutorials to get you started. The FAQ is spot on, and there is an extensive help forum, although sometimes it can be hard to know where to look for the answer you need. I found the staff very responsive when I wrote for help. They either gave me a fresh answer or directed me to the right page in the forum. I’d advise you to bookmark these as it can be hard to retrace your steps and get back to the specific help topics later.

I think Voicethread lends itself well to the teaching of math or science. In my individualized program, the same questions come up over and over. I could create mini-lessons using simple PowerPoints, a tablet computer, and the doodling tool. Once posted I could add verbal instructions (which appear as little bubbles around the edges of the presentation) and invite students to ask clarifying questions. These could be answered by other students. VT also lends itself well to discussions in e-learning courses. If you started with an inspiring presentation and had students record their responses, they could watch the dialogue grow. Language teachers like VT because it helps students practice their pronunciation. Using VT could also be a more interesting way to handle response journals in the Humanities.

The VT Terms of Use states: “You must be at least 13 years or older to register and use this Service. If you are under the age of 13, you must use an account created by a parent or guardian, and you must have the explicit permission of a parent or guardian to use the Service.” I know a lot of elementary teachers make use of this program, but I would advise anyone doing so even under an Educators’ account to have parent/guardian letters.

Until this year, several people could work on one VT at the same time. Students sometimes deleted each others’ work and even entire accounts because the moderation feature did not work properly. Now only one identity can be adding content. This means students or groups must prepare their slides and rehearse or pre-record their comments and add these to the file one at a time. (If the slides are assembled into a powerpoint, they could be uploaded all at once.) This could create logistical problems, but if you keep one station open for adding content and have students follow some sort of queuing system, I think they could manage it.

Whatever tool you choose, be clear about your purpose for using it and match the tool to the job. Also, if you don’t have time to properly test drive the application at home, give that task to a few students to do for you when they have spare time in class so you can talkwih them about what you really want the class to be able to do.  Anything that you could have figured out easily on your own, they’ll be able to do. When they run into trouble, you’ll know where you have to put our prep and problem solving efforts.

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This painting is a good metaphor for the way I envision a strong project-based learning experience. The structure must be operating firmly yet quietly in the background to foster dynamic interaction among classes and students (foreground objects). The underlying structure gives participants’ activity direction and purpose so they feel that their work, collaborative efforts, and learning have coalesced into a meaningful whole by the end. Global projects present a special set of implementation challenges. The mechanics of ensuring safety and co-ordinating meetings across time zones, the precariousness of relying on the technology to work, and the importance of developing cultural sensitivity were all well covered in the readings. For this blog, I’m going to look at five concerns not generally written about but of more significance to me personally.

I. Who’s the Project Really For?

If participation in a global project fills a teacher’s need to be interesting more than it does the student’s desire to learn through collaboration, when the students’ enthusiasm flags, the complaining begins, and ‘participation potholes’ emerge, a teacher who joined a project because it seemed like it would be fun or a good way to learn some Web 2.0 tools, may find him/herself wishing there were a graceful way to withdraw. We are kidding ourselves if we think the students will be excited about the work every day.  We have to be scathingly honest with ourselves about our own motivations for project involvement in order to be able to hold the team members together.

II. Sustain Student Motivation and Participation

Learning Centre students come to our school often because they have attendance problems and lack task perseverance. As a result any project we join must be so inherently intriguing that it will keep them plugged in long enough to see the work through to the end. It’s usually possible to convince students that connecting with others somewhere else in the world or contributing to a global data base is interesting enough to get them started, but that’s not enough to keep them emotionally attached over the long term. My students could easily become the ‘jerks’ who would disappoint their global peer partners by not following through. Having long since shut off their empathy mechanisms, appeals to ‘do the right thing’ can fall on deaf ears and toughened hearts.

If I were to engage my students in a global partnership it would be with the underlying purpose of teaching them the value of finishing what they’ve started. I would have to be careful not to be too persuasive at the beginning and would have to create the right mix of styles so that their hidden talents — for leadership, for deeper analysis, for  creativity, for follow through and commitment — could emerge. Timing would be everything. Conflicts with students’ commitments to other teachers to finish off courses, prepare for exams, or enter work programs that take them out of classes for prolonged periods have to be avoided. Doing one of these projects during flu season would definitely not be a good idea!

III. Choose a Vehicle; Teach the Students to Drive

My students tend to cut and run if they cannot see the end of a task. If they feel they’re building a bridge to nowhere, they go off task really quickly. That’s easy for them to do in our individualized set-up. Chatting, streaming music for personal listening, text messaging, wandering the building, complaining until you let them off the hook — these are all behaviours that emerge when my students don’t feel fully in control of their success.

We normally deal with that by doling out work in small packages that can be completed in short time frames and turn their schooling into a sort of hurdle-jumping exercise. I could not plunge them into something like Flat Classroom because the distance from where they are to where they’d need to go would just be too great.

Taking students through a series of projects deliberately scaffolded to develop ‘learning stamina’ would help them learn to tolerate more and more time between the start up and final outcomes. It would make a lot of sense to start with a global partnership that would last at most 3 days. We (in BC, Canada) could join a group such as Thomas Cooper’s class (in Marietta, GA) to watch a topical movie and  discuss it together.  My students could write up their individual reactions using a template as a guide and then post them for others to see in a wiki. Although for Thomas’s students this would be part of a bigger project, he’s willing to accommodate guests on ‘movie days’. It would enrich the experience for his students and at the same time give mine a personal appreciation for what they have to contribute to such a discussion and what they can take from it.

From there we might go on to something that would take a couple of weeks such as a data collection and contributing to a global data base. Finding a global project that affords the opportunity to complete just one aspect of a larger project would help here. The students could focus on improving their global partnership skills, make a small but valued contribution, and at the same time get a feeling for what a more comprehensive commitment would entail.

The final step would be for the students to decide on a long term project they’d like to join. Giving them this kind of ownership would help them carry the weight later on as their team dynamics and personal perseverance were tested by the longer time line. The higher level of critical thinking, creativity and innovation required would also put them into a position of having become more open to examining their own values and taking new ideas on board, but they’d be better prepared for this more intensive work having learned something of how projects work beforehand.

IV. Teach Tools First; then Use them in Projects

When a teacher contemplating a global project feels the way the fellow does in this image, those feelings can help us understand how many of our students may feel. There’s just so much to do and learn and create and share especially in a project as complex as Flat Classroom or Next Gen Ed.

We have to manage the unknowns better for the students. One way to do that is to decide well ahead what tools will be used and to give the students enough play time time to learn them.  Our generation tends to look at a tech tool in terms of what task it can be used to accomplish. We learn enough about it to get that job done. I’ve found that my students like to test drive tools by metaphorically taking them out on the highway and seeing what those babies can do! Then when it’s time to complete a specific task they can ask themselves first if they can make the tool create the product they envision or if they have to if they have to adjust their vision to fit the limitations of the too and time available.

V. Help Students to Generalize Learning

My students are really good at pocketing behavior. They act one way at work because it’s necessary to keep the job, another way at home because it gets them what they want, and a third way in class because they feel hidden from parental scrutiny and want to test boundaries.  What concerns me here is that learning to act in a responsible manner when involved in global projects may not generalize back to their real lives.

I want my students’ personal interests, values and perspectives to ‘stoke’ the project, but I also want what they learn through the project to infuse the way they look at the world and interact with other people. I don’t want them to be considerate of their online partners’ needs and feelings in the morning and then sit with friends making racist jokes at lunch.

To foster this kind of learning transfer, self- and group- reflection would have to be practiced not only during the project, but after it’s over. Project participants would be interviewed at the end about what deeper learning emerged for them through the completion of this project. These interviews would be showcased together with project products during a ‘present to parents and friends night’. In my experience,  the impact of students watching themselves speak thoughtfully in this way can be profound.

For my students the greatest benefits of engaging in global projects are the life lessons that can only be learned by starting out together and finishing together. When the magic happens,  I’ve found that Learning Center students can create wonderful projects together, achieve important realizations about themselves and others, and carry with them the pride of having been part of something special.

What follows is an example of a truly extraordinary global collaboration.


Image Sources

Top: Nugoro, Widianto. Work In Progress, Painting. Digital image. Flickr. 09 May 2008. 3 Apr. 2009 <>.

Others: Pynchon, Victoria (attorney-mediator). Settle It Now: Negotiation Blog. 3 Apr. 2009 <>.

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